Avraham Negev (d. 2004) was professor emeritus of archaeology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. In addition to digging at Nabatean sites, he has also directed excavations at Caesarea (1961–62) and Susiya Carmel (1984–85). He overcame numerous challenges in order to be an Nabatean archaeologist. In 1947, he lost his right hand as a commander in the Haganah police force. Major Nabatean sites as Petra in Jordan, Egra in Saudi Arabia, and Seeia in Syria were closed to him because he was Israeli. Forced by circumstances to excavate in the Negev desert, at such important Nabatean caravan stops as Oboda (Avdat, 1958–61 and 1975–77), Mampsis (1965–67) and Elusa (1973 and 1979–80), Negev has gained a unique perspective on the nature of the Nabatean trade network and has developed an unusually broad knowledge of Nabatean civilization.