The hieroglyphs in the center of the scarab seal above spell out Y‘qb-HR, the Egyptian transliteration of the Semitic Yaqub (Jacob). Found in 1969 at Shiqmona, a site near Haifa, Israel, the “Shiqmona scarab” dates to before 1730 B.C.
A second “Jacob” seal (above), first published in 1930 and now in Berlin, is almost identical to the Shiqmona scarab except that its hieroglyphs are enclosed by a cartouche, an oval indicating a royal name. Based on similarities in style and design, the author concludes that the Shiqmona and Berlin scarabs were made in the 18th century B.C. by the same Canaanite craftsman.
The author suggests that this Jacob was a Canaanite king and an ancestor of another king named Jacob who ruled over Egypt almost a century later as the second king of the XVth—Hyksos—Dynasty.
A pharaoh’s title consisted of five parts; only the final two—the prenomen and nomen—were enclosed in cartouches. The pharaoh’s contemporaries knew him by his prenomen, or throne name, and not by his nomen, or birth name, by which we know him today (for example, prenomen: Neb-kheperu-R‘; nomen: Tut-Ankh-Amu