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Biblical Archaeology Review, November/December 1997


Special Section

Roman Jerusalem

Searching for Roman Jerusalem

By Hillel Geva

The Romans destroyed Jerusalem at the end of the summer of 70 C.E. Under the command of the Roman general Titus, they burned the city and dismantled the Temple, thus ending the First Jewish Revolt (66—70 C.E.)—the so-called Great Jewish Revolt. The Romans were not content simply...Read more ›

Roman Jerusalem

Aelia Capitolina: Jerusalem No More

By Hanan Eshel

Unlike the First Jewish Revolt against Rome (66–70 C.E.), which was chronicled in detail by the first-century historian Josephus, the Second Jewish Revolt, the so-called Bar-Kokhba Revolt (132–135 C.E.), is known only from scraps of ancient literature.1 Archaeology alone can fill in the gaps...Read more ›

Roman Jerusalem

Hadrian: A Portrait in Bronze

By Molly Dewsnap Meinhardt

Vigorous, muscular and armorclad, Emperor Hadrian—in the rare bronze sculpture featured on the cover of this issue—appears as the adept military leader who dominated the Mediterranean world from 117 to 138 C.E. His commanding appearance is recognizable from marble statues, reliefs, coins and even ancient texts. The...Read more ›

Roman Jerusalem

Iter Principis: Hadrian’s Imperial Tour

By Kenneth G. Holum

The early Greek rulers did it. And the Roman emperors followed suit: making a royal tour of the provinces, showing the flag, as it were, accepting the plaudits of the crowds at each stop and connecting with the people according to carefully prescribed customs...Read more ›

Battle Over Bones


Archaeologists are losing ground in an increasingly violent struggle with ultra-Orthodox Jews over the excavation of bones in Israel. Willing to use any means at their disposal, the ultra-Orthodox have recently turned to death threats and political pressure to stop digs. Their tactics, archaeologists claim, are already...Read more ›

Battle Over Bones

Fierce Protest Over Bones Threatens to Halt Archaeology in Israel

By Dina Shiloh

Archaeologists in Israel are feeling more and more besieged as they face increasingly violent attacks from the ultra-Orthodox community as well as government interference in their work. Many archaeologists say their field is in crisis. Employees of the Israel Antiquities Authority (IAA) are routinely harassed at work...Read more ›

Battle Over Bones

Politics—Not Religious Law—Rules Ultra-Orthodox Demonstrators

By Gabriel Barkay

Political power, not religious law, motivates the ultra-Orthodox in Israel who violently protest archaeological excavations, claiming that ancient Jewish graves are being desecrated. Jewish religious law (halakhah) does not prohibit moving tombs, if it is done with dignity and respect. The sages were well aware of the...Read more ›


Three Shekels for the Lord

Ancient inscription records gift to Solomon’s Temple

By Hershel Shanks

Two extremely important Hebrew inscriptions have recently surfaced on the antiquities market. One appears to be a receipt for a donation of three silver shekels to the Temple of Yahweh, pursuant to an order of the Israelite king. This is the oldest extra-Biblical mention...Read more ›

Leading Archaeologist Chastised for Publishing Artifacts in Private Collections

Debate over antiquities market continues

By Hershel Shanks

Cyprus’s most distinguished archaeologist, retired Antiquities Department director Vassos Karageorghis, has been harshly criticized for publishing privately owned artifacts obtained on the antiquities market and lacking known provenances in a catalogue of Cypriot terra-cotta figurines. Karageorghis’s “inclusion of a large amount of material from private collections raises...Read more ›

Electronic Echoes: Using Computer Concordances for Bible Study

By Alan F. Segal

(For Eugene Schwartz) Have you tried those wonderful computerized Biblical concordance programs? They’re a modern miracle. With them, you can find lots of interesting connections to enrich sermons and personal Bible study. But are the programs useful in scholarly study? And can a layperson successfully do research...Read more ›

Golden Anniversary of the Scrolls

By Hershel Shanks

There, on a moonlit night beside the ruins of Qumran, was the voice of Yigael Yadin, Israel’s most illustrious archaeologist, dead these 13 years, reading in the original language from a letter by Shimon bar Kosiba, better known as Bar-Kokhba, leader of the Second Jewish Revolt against...Read more ›