Biblical Archaeology Review 32:6, November/December 2006

Strata: Strata Answers

Answer: 102

In 165 B.C. Judas Maccabeus and the rebels under his leadership successfully defeated the Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes and expelled his army from Judea. Judas then cleansed and rededicated the Temple in Jerusalem, an event still celebrated by Jews at the festival of Hanukkah. The Hasmonean dynasty was soon established and ruled independently until 63 B.C., when a civil war over succession brought the intervention of the Roman general Pompey and the beginning of direct Roman control in the region.

Answer: E. Israelite cosmetics tray

This decorated cosmetics tray is made of sandstone and dates to the ninth century B.C.E. Although the few Biblical references to makeup seem to have a somewhat negative connotation, archaeological excavations throughout the areas of Israel and Judah have turned up numerous similar trays and other cosmetic accessories, indicating that the use of cosmetics was rather popular among the ancient Israelites.
Makeup was often used by both men and women for hygienic or medicinal purposes, as well as for beautification. Various roots, minerals and other substances were ground up and mixed with oil or water in a tray like this to create the different kinds of makeup. It was then applied with the fingers, a brush or a small spatula, many of which have also been discovered at ancient sites.
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